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HEALTH NEWS
 

Nutrition

 

Cancer Prevention Diet

Many people take the facts behind a cancer prevention diet seriously. What to Know According to a report entitled "Food,Nutritionand the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective" published by theAmerican Cancer Society as much as 30 to 40 percent of cancers are linked to diet choices. The society's dietary guidelines place great emphasis on an increased diet of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and grain-based foods. A cancer prevention diet focuses on healthy eating and avoids foods high in calories and fats. Eating a healthy diet offers plenty of long term benefits as well. Simple Guidelines Guidelines for healthy eating that focus on cancer prevention are simple to understand and follow.
  • Reduce foods high in fat.-The cellular structure of foods high in fat content play an important role in the formation and development of cancer cells. Fat cells can easily split and contribute to a high frequency of what is known asfree radicals. These free radicals are actually molecular fragments that can damage a cell's DNA makeup, possibly causing a mutation that results in cancerous cells. This is why it is so important to limit saturated and trans fats in yourdietto no more than 30 percent.
  • Reduce meat consumption.This is especially important in regards to meat with high fat content. When you do cook meats, do so by baking, poaching, or broiling. Choose healthy meats, like turkey, chicken, and fish as opposed to red meats. Limit your meats to only one-third or less of the foods you place on your plate, and instead fill up on fruits and vegetables.
  • Avoid carcinogens, which are cancer causing substances. These carcinogens can be found in the following: moldy foods, preserved or dried meats, foods cooked in highly heated oils, and smoked foods.
  • Battle free radicals with nutrients.You can sometimes reverse the dangerous affects of free radicals by filling up on foods full of nutrients or anti-oxidants. Vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, as well as folic acid, calcium, selenium, zinc, and beta carotene can be found in fruits and vegetables.
  • Watch food storage.Pay attention to how you store food, whether it be uncooked or leftovers. Don't leave perishable foods unrefrigerated for more than two hours in temperatures between 40 and 90 degrees F. or for 1 hour in temperatures 90 degrees or above, according to theFood Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Limit alcoholic beverages and cigarettes.While it has already been proven that cigarette smoking and alcohol are related to cancer, those who combine alcohol with smoking are at an even greater risk for developing cancer.
  • Consult your doctor about starting a vitamin regimen.Dietary supplements and vitamins can also help you maintain a healthy diet, and may be a necessary addition to acancer preventiondiet. Even if you are eating a healthy diet, your active lifestyle may dictate a need for additional vitamins and minerals.
  • Lower your salt consumption.Don't automatically grab that salt shaker. Your salt intake should only be 6 grams or less each day. Keep in mind that some foods are already salted, and you should take that into account when attempting to figure your grams of sodium per day.

Cancer Prevention Diet Acancerprevention diet should consist of the following:
  • Eat five servings or more of fruits and vegetables every day.
  • Choose foods from other plant sources. These could include whole grain breads, cereals, rice, and legumes.
  • Avoid foods that contain sugar and white flour, such as sweets, pastries, soft drinks, etc.
  • Eat foods that provide plenty offiberto your diet, including fruits such as apples, bananas, prunes and citrus fruits; vegetables like broccoli, carrots, tomatoes, lima and kidney beans, black-eyed peas, and lentils; and whole grains such as nuts, barley, and oat bran.
  • Consume healthy fats, which can be found in sunflower, canola, olive, and soybean oils, and spinach and mustard greens.
  • Up your omega-3 fatty acid intake by eating fish and fish oils.
A diet rich inlife healthy foodscan help you prevent the risk of cancer. Nutrition and Renal Failure

The kidneys are responsible for many functions in the body. They help control the body's fluid and electrolyte (mineral) balance and also help the body remove waste products (products that the body cannot use). When the kidneys are not functioning properly, these waste products can build up in the body and make your child feel sick. This can cause your child to have a poor appetite, which can contribute to poor growth and development. The goal of the diet for children with renal failure is to encourage adequate intake to promote growth, while controlling intake of protein, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, and fluid, as needed. The amount of dietary restriction is individualized for each child depending on his/her age, degree of renal failure, type of treatment (dialysis vs. predialysis), medications, and laboratory values. Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding nutrition and renal failure, for which we have provided a brief overview.

Protein Restriction


Protein requirements for children with renal failure: The body uses protein from foods to grow and repair cells. With kidney failure, your child will need to avoid excess protein. The kidneys may not be able to get rid of the waste products that come from eating too much protein. Your child's weight, medical condition, type of treatment, and laboratory values will be factors in determining how much protein your child needs. Your child's physician or dietitian will help determine how much protein your child needs. What foods are high in protein? The following foods are high in protein and should be restricted if your child has renal failure:
  • meat (beef, chicken, pork, turkey)
  • fish
  • seafood (shrimp, scallops, clams, oysters)
  • eggs
  • dairy products (milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, pudding)
Helpful protein serving conversions: Your child's physician or dietitian will tell you how much protein your child can have each day. This will usually be listed in servings or ounces per day. 
Food Amount of Protein Food Amount of Protein
chicken nuggets 2 nuggets = 1 ounce hamburger 3 ounces
chicken fingers 1 finger = 1 1/2 ounces 1/4 lb burger 4 ounces
chicken sandwich 4 ounces roast beef sandwich 3 ounces
chicken breast 3 to 4 ounces pork chops 3 to 4 ounces
chicken wing 1 ounce luncheon meats 3/4 ounce
drumstick 1 ounce 1 large egg 1 ounce

Potassium Restriction Potassium requirements for children with renal failure: Potassium is very important to the body, but too much potassium in the blood can be harmful. When your child's kidneys do not work well, too much potassium can build up in the blood. Your child's body receives potassium from the foods he/she eats. If your child is having trouble maintaining a normal potassium level, then it may be necessary for him/her to limit or avoid foods with high amounts of potassium. What foods are high in potassium? Most foods contain some amount of potassium. It is important to avoid or limit foods that are high in potassium if your child is on a low-potassium diet, or if your child's blood level of potassium is too high. Some foods that are high in potassium include the following:
  • bananas
  • prunes
  • oranges
  • potatoes
  • orange juice
  • sweet potatoes
  • grapefruit juice
  • tomato sauce
  • cantaloupe
Use the following list as a guide in your child's food choices. Your child's physician or dietitian will let you know how much potassium your child can have each day. Potassium content of foods: Most fruits, juices, and vegetables are high in potassium, especially when eaten raw. Use this list as a guide to your child's food choices. Be sure to monitor your child's portion sizes, especially if he/she is on a low-potassium diet.
LOW (0 to 100 mg) MEDIUM (101 to 200 mg) HIGH (more than 201 mg)
Fruits
applesauce
blueberries
cranberries
cranberry juice
grape juice
lemon
papaya nectar
peach nectar
canned pears
pear nectar
Fruits
apples
apple juice
apricot nectar
blackberries
cherries
canned figs
fruit cocktail
grapes
grapefruit
lemon juice
mango
papaya
peaches
pineapple
plums
raisins (2 Tbsp.)
raspberries
rhubarb
strawberries
tangerines
watermelon
Fruits
apricots
avocado
bananas
cantaloupe
dates
dried figs
grapefruit juice
honeydew melon
kiwi
nectarines
oranges
orange juice
fresh pears
prunes
prune juice
 
Vegetables
alfalfa sprouts
bamboo shoots
green or wax beans
bean sprouts
raw cabbage
cucumber
lettuce
peppers
water chestnuts
watercress
Vegetables
artichoke
broccoli
cooked cabbage
carrots
cauliflower
celery
greens (collard, mustard)
corn
eggplant
mushrooms
onions
green peas
radishes
summer squash
turnips (and greens)
Vegetables
asparagus
beets (and greens)
baked beans
dried beans and peas
brussel sprouts
butter beans
okra
potatoes
hash browns
french fries and chips
sweet potatoes (yams)
pumpkin
tomatoes
tomato products
tomato juice
vegetable juice (V8®)
spinach
    Miscellaneous
100 percent bran cereals
molasses and chocolate
salt substitutes (NoSalt®)
lite salt (SaltSense®)
buttermilk
nuts

(Portion sizes - 1/2 cup) Some potassium can be removed from potatoes and other vegetables by following the instructions below:
  1. Peel and dice the vegetable.
  2. Soak the vegetable in hot water for two hours, or in cold water overnight.
  3. Drain, rinse, and drain the vegetable.
  4. Cover the vegetable with fresh water, boil for five minutes, and simmer until done.
  5. Drain and serve (boiled, fried, or mashed) or freeze for later.
    Phosphorus Restriction Controlling phosphorus in your child's diet: Most children with renal failure need to limit the amount of phosphorus in foods they eat. The kidneys help remove excess phosphorus from your child's body. If the kidneys are not working well, excess phosphorus builds up in the bloodstream and can cause calcium to leave the bones. This can make your child's bones weak and easy to break. What foods are high in phosphorus? The following foods are high in phosphorous and should be restricted if your child has renal failure. Your child's physician or dietitian will tell you how much phosphorous your child can have each day.
  • dairy products, including:
  • milk (all kinds: whole, low-fat, skim, chocolate, and buttermilk)
  • cheeses (all except cream cheese)
  • puddings and custards
  • yogurt
  • ice cream
  • meats, chicken, turkey, and fish (especially organ meats)
  • dried beans and peas, including:
    • black-eyes
    • field peas
    • kidney
    • navy
    • northern
    • pinto
    • lima
  • nuts (all kinds and peanut butter)
  • seeds, bran, and whole grain cereals and breads
Your child's physician may recommend that your child take a phosphorus binder such as calcium carbonate. When calcium is taken with meals and snacks it prevents the phosphorus in foods from being absorbed by the body. This will help keep your child's blood level of phosphorus at an acceptable level and help keep his/her bones healthy and strong. Be sure your child always takes his/her phosphorus binder as prescribed.
Sodium and Fluid Restriction Sodium restriction for children with renal failure: A low-sodium diet or salt restriction may be used to help prevent or reduce fluid retention in your child's body. The amount of sodium or salt allowed in your child's diet depends on your child's medical condition. Your child's physician or dietitian will determine the amount of sodium allowed in your child’s diet. This is usually expressed in milligrams (mg) per day. Some common sodium restrictions include 2,000, 3,000, or 4,000 mg per day. With most sodium-restricted diets, high-sodium foods are limited and salt is not allowed in food preparation or at the table. Foods high in sodium:
  • canned foods (vegetables, meats, pasta meals)
  • processed foods (meats such as bologna, pepperoni, salami, hot dogs, sausage)
  • cheese
  • dried pasta and rice mixes
  • soups (canned and dried)
  • snack foods (chips, popcorn, pretzels, cheese puffs, salted nuts, etc.)
  • dips, sauces, and salad dressings
Foods low in sodium:
  • plain breads, cereals, rice and pasta
  • vegetables and fruits (fresh or frozen)
  • meats (fresh cuts; not processed meats)
  • milk and yogurt (these tend to be moderate in sodium)
  • beverages such as juices, tea, fruit drink/punch, and soda, sports drinks have sodium so these may need to be limited
Low-sodium seasonings: The following low-sodium seasonings may be used freely: 
allspice
bayleaf
basil
chili powder
chives
cinnamon
cloves
curry powder
dill
extracts (vanilla)
vinegar
garlic (fresh)
garlic powder
ginger
horseradish sauce
lemon juice
lime juice
mace
marjoram
dry mustard
nutmeg
Mrs. Dash®
onion (fresh)
onion powder
oregano
paprika
pepper
rosemary
sage
tarragon
thyme
Tabasco®
The following seasonings are high in sodium but can be used in limited amounts: Limit to 1 tablespoon per meal:
  • barbecue sauce
  • cocktail sauce
  • ketchup
  • mustard
  • hot sauce
  • low-calorie salad dressing
  • steak sauce
How can I help my child reduce his/her salt-intake? The following recommendations may help to reduce the amount of salt in your child's diet:
  • Do not use salt in cooking or at the table.
  • Cook with herbs and spices or, if permitted by your child's physician, use salt substitutes like Mrs. Dash®, NuSalt®, NoSalt®, or Morton's Lite Salt® .
  • Seasonings with "salt" in the name, like garlic salt, are high in sodium. When seasoning foods use fresh garlic or garlic powder, use onion powder instead of onion salt, and try celery seed rather that celery salt.
  • Eat home prepared meals, using fresh ingredients, instead of canned, frozen, or packaged meals. When dining out, request dressings and sauces on the side. Ask the chef to hold the salt in food preparation.
Type of food Allowed Foods to Avoid
Milk, yogurt, cheese
  • whole, 2 percent, or skim milk
  • cottage cheese, regular hard cheeses, tofu
  • puddings, custards, ice cream
  • processed cheese, cheese spreads
Meat, fish, poultry
  • fresh or frozen meats, poultry, fish
  • low sodium canned tuna or salmon
  • dried beans and peas
  • soybean/vegetable protein
  • peanut butter
  • salted or canned meats, fish (sardines, herring, anchovies), or poultry
  • lunch meats (bologna, ham, corned beef)
  • cured meats (ham, bacon, sausage)
  • hot dogs, dried beef, jerky
  • commercially frozen entrees
  • Kosher-prepared meats
Fruits
  • fresh, frozen, or canned fruits, fruit juices
  • none
Vegetables
  • fresh, frozen, or low sodium canned vegetables
  • sauerkraut, salted or pickled vegetables
  • vegetables cooked with salted meats
  • regular vegetable juices
 
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