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Nutrition

Starches, breads, cereals
  • potatoes, macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, rice
  • unsalted potato chips, low sodium pretzels, unsalted crackers, unsalted popcorn, and nuts
  • whole grain and enriched breads
  • pancakes, muffins, french toast, waffles, biscuits, cookies, cakes
  • whole grain and enriched cooked or commercially prepared dry cereals
  • potato chips, slated snack foods or pretzels
  • commercially prepared rice and noodle mixes
  • salted breads, rolls and crackers
  • salted popcorn and nuts
Miscellaneous
  • chocolate, cocoa, horseradish, herbs and spices such as onion powder, fresh garlic, garlic powder, celery seed
  • flavorings such as vinegar, lemon juice, Tabasco®
  • low sodium condiments and seasonings such as Mrs. Dash®, Nu-Salt®, Morton's Lite Salt®, NoSalt®
  • catsup, chili sauce, barbecue sauce, mustard, gravy (limit to 1 Tbsp/day)
  • low sodium canned soups, homemade soups
  • commercially prepared meat sauces
  • monosodium glutamate (MSG)
  • onion salt, garlic slat, celery salt, seasoned salt
  • olives, pickles
  • relish, soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce®
  • dehydrated soup or bouillon, canned soups
Fats
  • butter, margarine, lard, shortening, vegetable oil, mayonnaise
  • salad dressing (limit 1 Tbsp/day)
  • salt pork, bacon fat, fat back
  • more than 1 Tbsp salad dressing/day

Sample plan for 3,000 mg sodium restriction:
Breakfast Lunch Dinner
orange juice (1/2 cup)
dry cereal (1/2 cup)
toast (1 slice)
margarine (1 tsp)
jelly (1 Tbsp)
lowfat milk (1 cup)
beef patty (3 oz)
hamburger bun (1)
mustard (1 Tbsp)
ketchup (1 Tbsp)
sliced tomato and lettuce
lowfat milk (1 cup)
baked, breaded chicken strips, homemade (3 oz)
oven-baked french fries, homemade (1/2 cup)
green beans (1/2 cup)
dinner roll (1)
margarine (1 tsp)
apple juice (1 cup)
frozen yogurt (1/2 cup)
Morning snack Afternoon snack  
banana
cereal fruit bar
oatmeal cookies (2)
lemonade
 

Definitions for sodium claims on food labels:
The food label reads: What this means:
Sodium-free less than 5 mg sodium per serving
Salt-free meets requirements for sodium-free
Low sodium 140 mg sodium or less per serving
Very low sodium 35 mg sodium or less per serving
 
Reduced sodium at least 25 percent less sodium when compared to the same product without reduced sodium
Light in sodium 50 percent less sodium per serving when compared to foods with more than 40 calories per serving or more than 3 gm of fat per serving
Unsalted; no added salt; without added salt
  • no salt is added during processing
  • the product it resembles and substitutes for is normally processed with salt
  

Cardiac Diet

The cardiacdietis often prescribed for people who are at imminent risk of a heart attack. These people usually have health conditions such as high blood pressure, previous heart attack,hyperlipidemia ordyslipidemia and obesity. The cardiac diet is a healthy eating plan to follow, even if a person does not have any of these health conditions, and may be followed as a preventative management program or as part of a heart healthy treatment plan.
[image] The Basics of the Cardiac Diet When the cardiac diet is prescribed as part of a treatment plan, it is often individualized for the patient by a dietician and follows basic guidelines that promote good cardiac health.
  • Reduce the intake of food which contains animal fat
  • Use trans fat free margarine instead of butter
  • Read labels and note the amount of trans fat contained in the food item, it should be "0"
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Reduce sodium intake.
  • Add fish to the diet
  • Eliminate caffeine
  • Eat foods that containplant stanols
Reducing Fat Intake A key component in the cardiac diet is reducing the intake of harmful fats. Eliminating all fat is not healthy. It is important to understand what foods contain healthy fat and which foods contain fat that harms the arteries.
  • Polyunsaturated fats: This is a healthy type of fat that should be included in the diet. This type of fat can be found in fish and grain products.
  • Monounsaturated fats: These fats lower artery clogging cholesterol levels. They can be found in nuts, avocados, and olive oil.
  • Saturated fats: This type of harmful fat is found in meat, cheese,coconut oiland palm kernel oil.
  • Trans fat: These fats are chemically engineered and are used to hydrogenate oils. This process gives foods a longer shelf life, but they are not processed well in the body. These fats are found in packaged food items as well as many fried foods from fast food restaurants.
Read food labels for the type of fat contained in a product and avoid those which contain harmful fats. Eat More Fiber Eating more fiber offers many health benefits.High fiber intakeas part of the cardiac dietlowers bad cholesterollevels in the body to increase heart health and reduce the risk of heart attacks. In addition to the cardiac benefits, fiber also aids digestion and reduces instances of constipation. Women under 50 years of age should consume 25 grams of fiber per day, while those 51 and older should have 21 grams of daily fiber. Men under 50 years old should eat 38 grams of fiber and men over the age of 51 should take in 30 grams of fiber each day. Fiber can be found in many foods:
  • Whole grains
  • Legumes
  • Vegetables and fruits
  • Nuts and seeds
  Healthy Habits In addition to following a healthy cardiac diet eating plan, there are other things you can do to keep your heart healthy. One can enhance the effectiveness of this diet's basic guidelines by not adding additional salt to foods, cooking with healthy oils such as olive oil, and exercisingportion controlto reduce caloric intake forweight management. Get adequate exercise to keep your heart muscle strong and to lower cholesterol levels in the body. Getting 30 minutes of moderate exercise three to four times per week is usually adequate for heart health. Avoid stress and develop coping skills to help you relax when stress is unavoidable. Being in a tense state is not good for cardiac health. Relaxation is also an important component in maintaining a healthy heart. Talk to Your Doctor If you have concerns about your cardiac health, talk to your doctor before beginning a diet and exercise program. A physician can help you get a clear picture of your overall health and fitness level and guide you to the best approach for your individual situation.

Anti Aging Diet

We all age with the passing of time. It is an inescapable part of life. However, with an effective anti-agingdiet
we can halt the aging process for a life of wellness and longevity. Although we grow wiser with age, our body’s natural process is to begin slowing itself down. After a certain age, or age range, we do not require as much energy as we did when our bodies were still developing and growing. One example for the reason behind this decreased energy need is our bones decreased ability to deposit calcium into our bones at or around 35 years old. There are literally hundreds of cellular processes that require energy during our first half, but not as much thereafter. The aging process also involves the generation of unstable molecules known as free radicals at a cellular level in our bodies. Free radicals, as you may have heard, are the culprit for a multitude of health conditions due to their ability to interrupt the normal cell process. Common results of free radical activity include wrinkling of the skin, degenerative eye diseases, and cancer.The Anti-Aging Diet

Antioxidants

It would make sense that if free radicals are the enemies, then we need a weapon of defense to stop the fight, better known as aging. Fortunately, scientific research has uncovered the ever-so-powerful effects of antioxidants. Even better, antioxidants have been found in a number of foods. Vitamin A, C, E and the mineral, selenium, known as the ACES, have been found to be the answer to destroying free radical activity. Beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein have been singled out as extremely potentantioxidants. A short list of foods rich in antioxidants include:
  • Oranges
  • Carrots
  • Pomegranates
  • Blueberries
  • Strawberries
  • Soy
  • Almonds
  • Avocados
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Apricots
  • Wheat germ
  • Tomatoes
  • Spinach
  • Pink grapefruit
  • Broccoli
A word about selenium: Although selenium is not actually an antioxidant compound, but rather a mineral, it remains a beneficial component to the anti-agingdiet. It differs from the other compounds because it is strictly found in the soil. It finds its way into our food supply in two ways: either from the direct contact with the produce we eat or through the meat of the poultry and beef we eat that are raised on selenium-rich soils where the feed is grown.

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Calorie Requirement

A major piece to the anti-aging diet puzzle is thenutrition equationof calories in vs. calories out. As mentioned earlier, the human body needs fewer calories as metabolic functioning winds down to second or third gear. Hence, in order to maintain ahealthybodyweight as we grow older, we need to eat less to keep the unused calories from landing into storage space of hips, thighs, belly and such. The importance of this calorie reduction cannot be understated since a healthy weight is vital to the prevention of several age-provoked diseases. Examples include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arthritis and some cancers. Here are a few ways besides eating less to keep metabolic activity as high as possible:
  1. Eat 4 – 5 small meals per day
  2. Include nutrient-dense foods instead of “empty calorie” foods (since you need the same amount of nutrients, but fewer calories)
  3. Engage in weight-bearing exercise on a daily basis (muscle mass burns calories at a higher rate than fat mass)
  4. Measure food servings to ensure proper portions and adjust amounts accordingly. See thefood guide pyramidfor appropriate serving sizes
  5. Drink at least 8 - 12 cups ofwaterper day

Other Important Anti-Aging Nutrients

There are specific areas of the body that need our special attention as the years sail on by. Bones, eyes, heart, and joints are highly vulnerable to the effects of aging. For this reason, the following tips will help promote optimal function throughout the years:
  • Calcium: To prevent bone loss and fractures
  • Vitamin A: To prevent macular degeneration of the eyes
  • Phytonutrients: To prevent certain cancers
  • Fiber: To prevent heart disease by lowering cholesterol and to prevent colorectal cancer
  • Vitamin B6: To prevent insomnia, to lower homocysteine levels shown to increase risk of stroke
  • Unsaturated fats/Omega-3: To prevent heart disease, arthritic ailments, and certain cancers.
  • Water: To prevent dehydration and keep organ systems working properly, as well as ridding the body of toxins. Water also keeps the skin looking healthy by providing the hydration it needs to minimize fine lines and wrinkles.
It is important to point out that while the above guidelines are vital to an anti-aging diet, persons of every age can benefit from the eating healthy dietoutlined here. Diet for Osteoporosis Basics The main thing you will probably hear from your doctor when you ask about the right foods to eat in order to treat or prevent osteoporosis is foods rich in calcium andvitamin D. Both of these substances are vital for strong bones, and the body needs vitamin D in order to process calcium, so taking both together is a good idea. While you can get both calcium andvitamin D from supplements it's more beneficial to get them from food through a diet for osteoporosis. Most people know dairy products are a good source of calcium, but there are many others, such as:
  • Broccoli
  • Tofu
  • Salmon and sardines
  • Spinach, kale and other greens
  • Turnips
Foods rich in vitamin D include:
  • Coldwater fish such as salmon, herring, halibut and tuna
  • Egg yolks
  • Fortified milk and other products
  • Fish oil
  • Liver
Today there are many products fortified with vitamin D, calcium or both. Orange juice is one dietary staple you may want to look into adding if you don't already drink it. Other Diet Tips for Osteoporosis In addition to adding more calcium and vitamin D to your diet, you should make an effort to eat ahealthier dietgenerally if you have not been practicing healthy eating in the past. This means cutting out fatty meats and processed foods as much as possible, eating more fruits and vegetables, and, of course, piling on the low-fat dairy. Try to get at least one source of calcium and one of vitamin D at every meal, since your body can only process so much calcium at once. Have eggs and yogurt for breakfast, for example, add spinach to your salad (and fish on top) at lunch, drink fortified milk for snacks, and so on. Exercise Helps, Too In addition to eating a good diet for osteoporosis, it makes good sense to add a little exercise, especially if you've been lax in this area in the past. Always talk to yourdoctorbefore you start exercising, especially if you have had any fractures in the past. Exercise for the person with osteoporosis does not mean spending hours each week in the gym. Beneficial exercise can be as simple as walking around the neighborhood and doing some gentle exercises with light dumbbells. The key is to go for weight-bearing exercises, which means that you're actually using your body weight instead of having your weight be carried along (as when riding a bike or swimming, for example). A 30-minute walk most days of the week, combined with some basic strength-training exercises with light weights, can help build bone mass and give you better balance, which is so important for preventing falls. In fact, you might want to consider taking upyoga which both strengthens your muscles and improves balance and coordination, meaning you'll be less likely to fall and more likely to be able to help yourself back up if you do. Osteoporosis does not have to mean the end of physical activity. In fact, the diagnosis can open up a whole new phase of life in which you are more mindful of taking care of your body, including how you move and what you fuel it with.

Diet for Lowering Cholesterol

If you've been diagnosed with high cholesterol, it's essential to follow a diet for lowering  cholesterol in order to improve health and maximize life span. This type of diet is not focused on outward appearance and the excess weight that makes us unhappy, but instead focuses on the scientific interior of our bodies which is what determines our over all health.
[image] Cholesterol: The Enemy Within Cholesterol is a white fatty substance which is found naturally in the body. Cholesterol’s key function is to ensure that every cell runs smoothly and when present in its correct amounts only does good. Having too much cholesterol in the blood stream causes narrowing of important blood vessels, which in turn restricts vital blood flow to the body’s vital organs such as the heart, brain, lungs and kidneys. In particular, narrowing which restricts blood flow to the heart and brain predisposes life threatening problems such as heart attacks and strokes. Rarely are people in earlier life tested for problems such as high cholesterol. Until a serious event occurs, such as a heart attack, many people live life oblivious to the fact that they even had high cholesterol as it does not present warningsymptoms. It is essential, that from around the age of 50, blood cholesterol levels are checked every couple of years, and for those with a significant family history ofheart diseaseand high cholesterol it is probably advisable to do this as early as 40 and beyond. Once a ‘baseline’ cholesterol level is established, it can be improved upon. It is surprising how quickly cholesterol can be reduced if you follow a diet for lowering cholesterol. To better understand how to lower your cholesterol it's important to understand the science behind ‘good’ and ‘bad’ cholesterol. That's right, there are two types of cholesterol.
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) – this is known as the ‘good’ cholesterol and its function is to vacuum up all the bad cholesterol and take it to theliverwhere it is excreted from the body. Therefore a high level is good for the body as the more that is present in the blood stream, the greater work it does to eliminate the ‘bad’ cholesterol.
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – known as the ‘bad’ cholesterol, this one does the opposite of the HDL and takes cholesterol from the liver and deposits it in the arteries causing a narrowing over time.
Limit Risk: Follow a Diet for Lowering Cholesterol Following a cholesterol lowering diet is not a difficult challenge. In fact, it isn’t even a challenge. This type of regime centers on the need to eat healthily over all. It focuses on including or reducing certain types of food within the diet, however these are usually ‘everyday’ food items. The following offers basic, sensible advice regarding the essential food groups which are allowed or should be avoided when embarking on a diet for lowering cholesterol: Fats It is best to limitallfats. In particular avoid the following:
  • Butter and margarines which are low in poyunsaturates
  • Dripping, lard and suet
  • Cooking oil and vegetable oil of unknown origin
When eating 'bad fats' it is almost like placing the cholesterol in the body yourself, fat = cholesterol. Meats Meats which are deemed allowable include:
  • Chicken and turkey
  • Veal
  • Rabbit
  • Game
These are known to be less fatty meats. Meats to avoid include:
  • Meats with visible fat on them unless it is entirely removed
  • Pork and bacon which are particularly fatty meats
  • Prepared meats such as pate, sausages, salami, pork pies and luncheon meat
  • Duck and goose which are extremely fatty
Eggs and Dairy These types of food are quite heavily restricted, however, some are allowed but only in their ' low fat' form, for example:
  • Skimmed milk
  • Low-fat cheese such as cottage cheese, quark or curd cheese
  • Egg white
  • Low-fat yogurt
And those which are definite no-no's include:
  • Full cream milk
  • Evaporated or condensed milk
  • Cream - even imitation cream such as those in aerosols
  • Regular fat cheese and cream cheeses
  • Full-fat yogurt
Although we rely on dairy as a staple part of our diets, it is possible to get by following the healthy restrictions. Fish Fish which is classed as 'oily' is particularly encouraged when following alowcholesteroldiet. The following are especially good as they are high in Omega-3 which is known to elevate HDL:
  • Herring
  • Mackrel
  • Sardines
  • Tuna
  • Salmon
The good thing about these is that they hold a great amount of goodness even if they are eaten from a tin, they don't necessarily have to be fresh. Other allowable fish includes white fish such as cod, haddock and plaice, and those to avoid are fried fish and fish roe. Fruit and Vegetables Fruit and vegetables are pretty limitless in terms of what is good for you. The important thing to remember is that although something may be deemed as good, the way it is cooked could make it the exact opposite. For example potatoes are good particularly if the skins are eaten. However, eating them as fries or in roasted form totally changes their benefit. Cereals and Breads Most cereals are good, but it is best to eat them in their most basic form. Many manufacturers 'jazz up' products by coating them in lots of sugar which really isn't good news. Stick to wholemeal bread or wholegrain cereals as these are always more healthy. Things to avoid include pastries and bread products which may be embossed with cream and cheese. Desserts We all love a sticky dessert, particularly when we think it offers us comfort. These type of desserts tends to be full of fat in the form of cream and butter, so really they don't offer anynutritiousvalue. For desserts, it is best to stick to:
  • Low-fat yogurts
  • Jelly
  • Sorbet
  • Skimmed milk pudding
  • Fresh fruit
Adopt Good Habits The key to following this type of diet is adopting good habits that can be sustained. Fad diets only tend to have a life-span of a couple of weeks at most. The best diets are ones which allow the consumer to follow clear instruction which is often aided by good food labeling. Food labeling is particularly geared toward 'heart health' which is what achieving low cholesterol is all about. So focus on the fat content of foods, and the rest is easy..

Gout Diet

If you havegout your doctor may recommend that you follow a specific gout diet. But, what is it and why will it help your condition?
[image] What is Gout? Gout is a form of arthritis that occurs because of a high level of uric acid in the body. The uric acid collects in the joints and forms crystals, which cause the joints to become inflamed and painful. The first symptom is usually pain in the big toe that continues up the leg. Attacks can be experienced in the heels, ankles, knees, elbows, wrists, and fingers. Medication is usually prescribed to reduce the amount of uric acid the body makes. Gout mainly affects men over age 35.

What is the Gout Diet?

Although most uric acid is made by the body, some foods can increase the amount of uric acid in the blood. These foods contain purines. If someone is known to experience attacks of gout, it is best to avoid these foods and follow a low-purinediet especially during a flare-up. High-purine foods include:
  • Organ meats such as liver, kidneys, heart, brain, and sweetbreads
  • Bouillon
  • Broth
  • Consommé
  • Goose
  • Gravy
  • Legumes such as dried beans and peas
  • Mackerel
  • Mincemeat
  • Mussels
  • Beer and other alcoholic beverages
  • Yeast
  • Anchovies, sardines canned in oil, herring
  • Scallops
Moderate-purine foods include:
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Asparagus
  • Dried beans and peas
  • Lentils
  • Mushrooms
  • Spinach
Best Foods for Gout So, what should a person with gout eat and drink? It depends on whether or not a flare up is occurring. During an attack a high intake of fluid, about 8 to 12 cups a day, is recommended to flush out the excess uric acid in the blood. The recommended strategy is high in carbohydrates (grains such as bread, cereal, pasta, and rice, and fruits and vegetables), moderate in protein, and low in fat. The best form of protein for a gout sufferer is tofu or bean curd. It has been shown to increase the elimination of uric acid from the body. Other good sources ofproteinare low fat dairy products and minimal amounts of eggs and peanut butter. No more than 4 to 6 ounces of meat, poultry, or fish should be eaten daily. To limit fat intake, fried foods and rich desserts should be avoided. Limit butter, margarine, and oils to 3 to 6 teaspoons per day. It is important to limit alcohol consumption because alcohol can increase the amount of uric acid in the blood. No more than 3 drinks per week is recommended. In between flare-ups, or if the condition is chronic, drink at least 8 cups of fluid each day, limit alcohol, eat a moderate amount of protein each day, and focus on nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Avoiding the high purine foods is also a good idea so as to ward off another attack.

Weight Control

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is important. Overweight or obesity can cause build-up of uric acid. Lose weight slowly and steadily; one to two pounds a week is recommended as quickerweightlosscan cause an episode of gout.
 

 Fruits and Vegetables that Lower Blood Pressure

[image] [image]
 

Potassium Blood Pressure Benefit

Potassium rich fruits and vegetables help lower blood pressure because the natural potassium is easily absorbed by the body. When preparing vegetables high in potassium the recommended cooking methods include:
  • Baking
  • Roasting
  • Steaming
Swiss Chard Swiss chard is a good source of potassium but it is also rich in:
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Fiber
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Iron
  • Copper
  • Calcium
 Cabbage Cabbage is high in a chemical known as glutamic acid which is why it helps to lower blood pressure. Glutamic acid is among the most common amino acids. Cabbage is also a rich source of vitamin C and fiber. It comes in three varieties. White, green and red cabbage. The red cabbage has less potassium than the white or green but all are good for you. Citrus Fruits Of all the fruits, citrus fruits are the most effective in lowering high blood pressure. This is one of the reasons people who take high blood pressure medications are told not to eat grapefruit. Citrus fruits contain:
  • Vitamin C
  • Potassium
  • Folate
  • Phytochemical
 Bananas Many people are aware that bananas are a good source of potassium, but bananas are also one of the highest sources of naturally occurring B6. What people don't realize is that this tropical fruit benefits much more than blood pressure. They're a good source of dietary fiber and are beneficial to the:
  • Heart
  • Nerves
  • Kidneys
  • Bones
  • Blood
Apples You've heard the old saying, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." Apples are good for us in many ways and this is one fruit that's valuable in the fight against high blood pressure. They are a good source of potassium and phosphorus but low in sodium. They also provide fiber and flavonoids.  Other Fruits Other fruits that are high in potassium and good for bringing blood pressure down include:
  • Apricots
  • Figs
  • Kiwi
  • Passion Fruit
  • Raisins
Fruits and Vegetables that Lower Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables that lower blood pressure is one step toward naturally bringing your blood pressure down. Eating whole grains and low-fat dairy also helps along with reducing your sodium while increasing your intake of potassium. If you're unsure where to start, you may want to consider theDASH diet. Other steps to lowering your blood pressure naturally include:
  • Exercise
  • Drinking plenty of water
  • Stop smoking
  • Reduce alcohol consumption
  • Stress management
 

Menopause Diet

During the menopausal stage of a woman’s life, certain recommendations, including a menopausediet are beneficial for general health, well-being, and the management of the many side effects that accompany this change in a woman’s body.
[image] What is Menopause? Menopause is when the female body no longer supports the release of an egg from the ovary, thus no uterine activity is necessary. This happens because the ovaries stop producing enough estrogen and progesterone to support the reproductive events that occur over a month’s time. Hence, menopause marks the end of a woman’s reproductive years. When menstruation does not occur for a full year, menopause has fully been reached. The time leading up to this one year mark is called perimenopause. Perimenopause can last for less than a year to a few years or more, depending on the individual. During this initial stage, monthly menstruation ceases, although intermittent cycles may still occur. Hot flashes, irritability, insomnia, and fatigue are common side effects. This change can occur as young as mid-30’s up to mid-50’s, again depending on the individual. Primary Changes Taking Place
Many alterations occur during this stage of the female body. These changes require adaptations and adjustments on the outside in order to support what is happening on the inside. Diet is an important matter for many reasons. Most importantly, since the body no longer requires the energy to support the reproductive system and its events, the total number of calories taken in each day needs to be reduced in order to avoidweight gain. Also, because estrogen is depleted at this time, yet it is a primary component for the absorption of calcium, an increased quantity of dietary calcium is needed to compensate the decreased absorption rate and the prevention of bone loss. How Can a Menopause Diet Help? While there is no concrete, spelled-out diet for menopause and the time leading up to it, there are several dietary recommendations to follow during this time. Not only will following ahealthy eatingplan help with maintaining optimal well-being post-menopause, it will help ease the discomforts that often accompany the changes taking place hormonally prior to full menopause. Perimenopause Dietary Recommendations: The following recommendations may help with the symptoms leading up to complete menopause:
  • Vitamin E: Often referred to as the “menopause vitamin”, it appears to function similarly to estrogen on a chemical level in the body. It may help relieve hot flashes, as well as the emotionalsymptomsoften experienced. It can be found in wheat germ, eggs, dark green vegetables, and almonds.
  • Bioflavonoids: These plant components may also help with hot flashes, anxiety and other emotional side effects. Bioflavonoids can be found mainly in the pulp of citrus fruits.
  • Isoflavones: This powerful plant estrogen has been found to decrease the number and severity of hot flashes and other symptoms related to fluctuating human hormone levels due to its similar human estrogen structure. It is often referred to as the "natural" hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Since it is accepted by human receptor cells, it can fulfill the body’s need for estrogen, and thus eases the discomforts of perimenopause. Isoflavones can be found in soybeans and its products,flax seed borage oil and red clover.
  • Eliminating caffeine and other stimulants: Since insomnia is a major side effect and causes many other problems, such as fatigue, appetite changes, and lethargy, decreasing or avoidingcaffeinein coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate can only assist with better sleeping patterns. Any stimulants, including alcohol, are best to be avoided if insomnia is apparent.
  • B-complex: Especially needed if hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is prescribed, the B vitamins function to ease the many emotional difficulties associated perimenopause. Stress, fatigue,depression and irritability can be reduced with adequate B-complex intake. Foods rich in B vitamins include grains, nuts, peas, beans, meat, poultry, fish, and bananas.
Menopause Dietary Recommendations The following recommendations may help with general health after menopause has been reached:
  • Adjust calories: Since basal metabolic rate (BMR) is significantly reduced now, [Diet and Nutrition|calorie requirement]] is decreased as well. Watching portions carefully and eating mostly whole, unprocessed foods provides the basic foundation for consuming appropriate calorie amounts.
  • Calcium: This mineral is critical to the maintenance of bone strength. Since absorption rate of calcium is reduced now, dietary intake and/or supplements are necessary to avoid bone loss leading to osteoporosis. Low-fat dairy products, fortified foods and juices, and canned fish with edible bones (sardines and salmon) are primary sources. If you choose to take calcium supplements, split the dose to equal no more than 300-500mg per dose. Your body will not absorb more than that amount at one time.
  • Vitamin D: Essential for ongoing strength of bone mass andcalcium absorption vitamin D can be found in the same foods as calcium. Calcium supplements almost always contain vitamin D as well.
  • Magnesium: This mineral is noted to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, fatigue, anxiety and depression.Phosphorusandzincare equally needed for lowering the risk of osteoporosis. Figs, lemons, grapefruit, corn, almonds, soybeans and apples provide adequate amounts of these minerals.
  • Vitamin C: This “healing vitamin” is important for collagen production, a function our body does not do as efficiently as before menopause. It is also beneficial for the function of the adrenal glands and immune system, both of which become compensated at this time.
Other Considerations If weight loss is a result of menopause,exercisecan be extremely helpful. With exercise, your body will utilize the extra calories that have not been adjusted through food intake. Seeking support from commercialdietplans such asWeight Watchers can also offer you guidance toward better eating habits. The services of a nutritionist or similar health professional can also provide specific recommendations just for you.     HIV Nutrition & Health Contents Why is good nutrition important in HIV?
  • Good nutrition helps keep your immune system strong, enabling you to better fight disease. A healthy diet improves quality of life.
  • Weight loss, wasting, and malnutrition continue to be common problems in HIV, despite more effective antiretroviral medications, and can contribute to HIV disease progression.
  • Good nutrition helps the body process the many medications taken by people with HIV.
  • Diet (and exercise) may help with symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and fatigue, and with fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities such as high blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglycerides
 
Building a High Quality Diet What is a high quality diet? A high quality diet is a diet high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, with lean, low-fat protein sources. These foods are nutrient-dense, and will contribute much more to your health and well-being than empty calories from sugar and fat. Tips for a building a high quality diet:
  • Eat 5–6 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, or approximately 3 cups. Eat a variety of colors for a full range of nutrients.
  • Aim to have 50% of your carbohydrates come from whole grains.
  • Choose lean protein sources such as skinless chicken breast, fish, extra-lean cuts of pork and beef, and low-fat dairy products.
  • Limit added sugar, sweets, and soft drinks; they are low in nutrient density and cause spikes in glucose levels.
  • Have a serving or more of nuts, seeds, or legumes per day.
  • Whether eating a full meal or snacking, include all 3 macronutrients: protein, carbohydrates, and a little fat.
Protein Proteins are the building blocks of your muscles, organs, and many of the substances that make up your body’s immune system. When you don’t supply enough calories and protein through food, your body uses its own protein (muscles) to make up for the lack of fuel. This results in the weakening of your body and immune system.

The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.4–0.5 grams per pound (0.8–1.0g/kg) of body weight for a healthy adult. For a 160 lb healthy male, that would be 64–80 grams of protein per day. More protein may be required to maintain or build lean body mass in a person with HIV, from 0.6–0.9 g/lb (1.2–2.0g/kg) of body weight. An approximate rule of thumb is 100–150 g/day in HIV+ men and 80–100 g/day for HIV+ women. Protein intake should not be greater than about 15–20% of total calories; extremely high protein diets can stress the kidneys.

Lean meat, poultry without skin, and fish are good sources of protein; a portion size of 3–4 ounces is about the size of a deck of cards. Eggs and low-fat dairy products are also good. In addition to these animal sources, you can also get protein from legumes (dried beans and peas), nuts, and seeds. Vegetables and grain products such as wheat bread, pasta, barley, and rice contain minimal amounts of protein.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates give you energy. A healthful diet is high in complex carbohydrates (whole grains, whole grain products, and legumes) and low in simple carbohydrates (sugar, candy, soft drinks, cakes, cookies, ice cream). Within the category of complex carbohydrates, legumes and whole grains such as whole wheat flour, oats, barley, and brown rice, are better sources of carbohydrate than white bread and pasta, rice, and potato. They are higher in nutrient values and fiber and are absorbed by the body more slowly to provide a steady source of glucose, better sustaining you until the next meal. These foods may also be helpful for people with diabetes or insulin resistance.
Fats
Fat is the body’s major source of energy storage. The recommended intake of total fat is less than 30% (25% preferred) of daily total calorie intake, but the kind of fat may be as important as the amount. Saturated fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). People with HIV may experience medication-related high cholesterol and triglycerides, requiring caution with regard to CVD. Omega-3 fatty acids (a type of polyunsaturated fat), found in heart-healthy fish and other foods, are protective against CVD. Saturated Fat:
Recommendation: 7% or less of total calorie intake
Food sources: fatty meat, poultry with skin, butter, whole-milk dairy foods, and coconut and palm oils Monounsaturated Fat:
Recommendation: 10% or greater of total calorie intake
Food sources: nuts, seeds, canola and olive oils, avocado, and fish Polyunsaturated Fat
Recommendation: 10% or less of total calorie intake
Food sources: fish, walnuts, flax seed & oil, and corn, soybean, sunflower, and safflower oil How many calories do I need?
Calories are the energy in food. They provide your body with the fuel it needs to keep running. If you are HIV-positive, you will need to increase the amount of food you eat to maintain your lean body mass. You need at least 17–20 calories per pound of body weight. During infections and fever, however, your calorie needs may be higher than usual.
  • If your weight is stable and there is no opportunistic infection, use 17–20 calories/lb.
    • Example: If you weigh 140 lbs., you may need 2,380 calories per day (using 17 calories/lb.).
  • If you have an opportunistic infection, use 20 calories/lb.
    • Example: If you weigh 140 lbs., you may need 2800 calories per day.
  • If you are losing weight, use 25 calories/lb.
    • Example: If you weigh 140 lbs. and have lost 10 lbs. in the last 6 months, you may need 3,500 calories per day.
Keep in mind that calories from healthy, nutrient-dense foods will keep you healthier than empty calories from sugar and fat. Putting It All Together General dietary guidelines recommend a daily intake of:
  • 15-20% Protein
  • 50-60% Carbohydrate
  • 25% Fat

Now that you have an idea of how many calories you may need each day, and how to make good choices with proteins, carbohydrates, and fats,” for examples of how many grams per day of each of the three groups add up to your daily calorie needs.

Nutrition Supplements
If you are losing weight and do not have adequate food resources, talk to your doctor about adding a nutrition supplement, such as Carnation Instant Breakfast, Boost, or Ensure. Whenever possible, we believe the best way to increase weight is to eat a high quality diet that is nutrient-dense.
We know that most people with HIV do not always eat 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of all nutrients. For this reason, we recommend taking one or two multivitamin/mineral tablets (without extra iron) providing at least 100% of the RDA (check label) per day. Always discuss any supplement use with your doctor.

For more information about vitamins, minerals, and supplements, including roles in the body, RDAs, upper safety limits, and best food sources, visit the National Institute of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements site.
 
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